Matilde dos Santos writes on CATAPULT Awardee Réginald Sénatus for Madinin’Art

Martinique based historian, art critic and independent curator Matilde dos Santos, who was one of the guest curators/mentors selected to conduct studio visits with 6 of the 24 CATAPULT Stay Home Artist Residency participants, has generously offered to write features on each of the artists she engaged with during the programme. The second piece focuses on the practice of Haitian artist Réginald Sénatus!

Read the article, originally published in French on Madinin’Art: Critiques Culturelle de Martinique (November 29, 2020), in English below!


Last August, Fresh Milk, Kingston Creative and The American Friends of Jamaica, conceived and launched the program CATAPULT | A Caribbean Arts Grant; a set of six initiatives designed to support Caribbean creatives confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic. I had the honour of being invited by Fresh Milk to visit the artists’ studios as part of the “Stay Home Artist Residency.” Among the 24 candidates selected by the CATAPULT jury, I was able to virtually meet 6 young and talented artists from Aruba, Barbados, Haiti, Jamaica and Martinique. I wanted to share these moments of discovery with you. Here is the second episode in this series of studio visits.

Réginald Sénatus was born in 1994 in Port au Prince, where he lives and works. Having grown up around artists’ workshops on the Grande Rue, and inspired by artists like Celeur and Casseus, he participated since 2010 in the Collective Atis Rezistans, comprised essentially of sculptors working with recovery materials. As of 2017, he is a founding member of Nou pran lari a, an artistic and social movement that invests urban space to exhibit artists outside of traditional spaces. Hanging out on the Grande Rue, he became exposed to practices where the border between crafts and art is vague, or even non-existent, as it is becoming more and more common in the world of contemporary art. Self-taught at the outset, he trained at the Art Centre by participating in workshops on engraving, sculpture, painting, ceramics… with artists such as Pasko, Mario Benjamin, Sébastien Jean, Patrick Villaire, Simil, Tessa Mars, Mafalda Mondestin and Pascale Faublas, among others. He also had the opportunity to collaborate with other artists such as Gina Cunningham in 2017 and Ernest Pignon-Ernest in 2019. Very active, he participated in various artistic events including several editions of the Ghetto Biennale in Port-au-Prince, receiving the 3rd  prize in 2015 and the 1st prize in 2017 and 2019. In January 2020, in a kind of national consecration, he exhibits at The Musée du Panthéon National Haïtien (MUPANAH).

Reginald Sénatus, Nou pran la ria

Réginald studied law, and that may be why his work reflects a constant concern for societal issues, namely social and environmental injustices. His work focusses on the country and its capital, adopting a benevolent but not complacent look at the ills of the city, revealing a particular interest in both the exclusions and the affirmation of life.

Technically his works from the Ghetto biennials of 2017 and 2019 and Mansuétude, which he produced in the SHAR-CATAPULT programme this year,  all belong to the same series. All three of them are composed of raw and smooth plywood, forming a surface on which the artist assembles pieces of square or rectangular wood, to serve as a support for a rubber plate, which is then engraved, painted, and inked. Up until 2017 Réginald used recycled rubber tires, which he cut into plates; since 2018 he uses rubber plates, that generally serve in Haiti to make shoe soles. He works with them like any other engraving material, such as linoleum blocks. First he draws on the plate and then digs out the patterns. Afterwards, he inks the hollows with acrylic auto paint.  The 2017 piece was painted white, while carefully avoiding the hollows, which remained naturally black. Other works, once ready, are rubbed with a fabric soaked in solvent to obtain a shiny finish. The plates do not constitute a step in an engraving process; they will not serve to print, but provide the support for cutting and painting, as a canvas. For a long time, he used a razor to dig out his motifs, but since 2018 he uses gouges. Once the plate is engraved and painted, he may add mirrors, plastic bottles, any kind of objects. A practice of recuperation, reuse and upcycling. A very contemporary painting practice through its use of non-traditional materials and supports, but also a practice that shares a great intimacy with popular art and Art brut. And if we want to refer to established movements in the history of art, we could relate his work to the Nouveau realisme or the Arte povera, for the use he makes of poor materials and recovered objects.

In 2017, he devoted six months to the creation of  Nan Benyen Potoprens Pa gen kache lonbrik,  literally, “when Port-au-Prince bathes, she does not hide her navel,” which reveals the city “without lying and without reserve” according to his words. The installation is an imagined cartography of the city, drawn with small wooden briquettes, each surmounted by a rubber plate, engraved and painted, often with religious symbols that the artist uses to represent historical and contemporary aspects of the city. The installation was interactive in a way, since the public was invited to invest one side of the work to record its thoughts, on the city, its problems, its hopes… A work that I see in pieces in the dim light of the studio, and that renders it all so beautiful in the photos.

In 2019, working on the theme of the Ghetto biennial “The Haitian Revolution and Beyond,”  Réginald chose to portray the Battle of Vertières, the last battle against slavery and colonization in Haiti. The work Murs et portes de Vertières is accompanied by a text that reveals the artist’s intention. At Vertières, he says, two men born as slaves, Jean Jacques Dessalines and Capois-La-Mort, defied the world order. Their victory led to the creation of the first black republic in the world. If Réginald has shown an interest in walls and doors, it is because these are ambivalent objects that can give passage or on the contrary, restrict access, to both good and evil.   Insurmountable, they protect or exclude. Crossed over, they can open up on dreams or nightmares.  In this work, we notice that the artist abandoned religious symbols for those of his own making. He also added mirrors and gave the work a finish so lustrous that the black surfaces shine like mirrors.

Mansuétude, the work produced in residence, bears the mark of the pandemic. He created it as a kind of exorcism: talking about the virus to keep it at bay, to cast out fear as well. Here, the artist approaches figuration, with more elaborate drawings, almost characters, depicting masked women. All the young artists I met at the SHAR residency told me how much they felt the impact of the pandemic; living most often in precarious situations even before confinement, they then suffered cancellations or postponements of projects, loss of income and above all, for Réginald, loneliness and alienation. The CATAPULT grant offered Réginald the possibility to focus on a project: the piece Mansuétude made entirely while in residence, yet another assemblage of rubber plates mounted on wood, engraved and inked. On almost all of the plates, a spiral or circle, that of the virus itself, that of the circle of humans.

On two smaller plates, there are plastic bottles and cutlery; on another, the symbol of the US dollar; in the end, comprising a whole series of recurrent concerns in the time of pandemic. The artist experiences the crisis as indicative of the fragilities and weaknesses of our societies on a global scale, affecting first of all the most vulnerable: the elders. He thinks that only mutual aid can overcome these fragilities, hence the figures of masked women discussing in a circle. In Haiti, as in Martinique, a woman is a poto mitan, fanm doubout, pillar of the family. Similarly, it is through them that we begin to heal the world. I find the plates very beautiful, taken individually;  but I can’t say why their assembly on the wooden support leaves me dubious, as if the installation was not yet finished.

The visit to Réginald’s studio was disrupted by technical glitches. One could not hear, the other could hardly see. He showed me around his studio with his phone, which was not ideal for visibility, especially since the workshop was rather dark. I wanted to see better what I was guessing in the dark. So we continued to talk the following days, via WhatsApp. Réginald also sent me photos and texts. I discovered a committed artist, socially engaged and concerned about the current state of his country. Proud of his story. Eager to meet people and learn from them. Undeniably gifted with his hands. An artist who seizes every opportunity to learn and enrich his practice; an artist focused on sharing, who intends to pass on the fruits of his experience in residency to his fellow artists in Haiti. A young artist to follow, no doubt.

– Matilde dos Santos – Historian, art critic and independent curator

Appreciation to the partners of the CATAPULT programme: The American Friends of Jamaica, Kingston Creative and Fresh Milk.

The SHAR participants described their experiences in blogs that you can read on the Fresh Milk platform here.

Pascale Faublas’ Fresh Milk Residency – Week 4 Blog Post

Fresh Milk shares the fourth and final blog post by Haitian resident artist Pascale Faublas, who is joining us as part of an artist exchange programme with Le Centre d’Art, Haiti, to create opportunities for women arts practitioners. Pascale reflects on some of the work being done by Barbadian creatives and regional arts spaces, and how they have continued to find ways of exhibiting and supporting artists during the difficult circumstances of 2020, as well as sharing her third piece created in Barbados. This programme is supported by UNESCO’s International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) and the Foundation for Knowledge and Liberty (FOKAL). Read more below:


EN FRANÇAIS

Semaine 4

Déjà ma dernière semaine de résidence artistique en Barbades !

Les artistes y déploient  des efforts d’ingéniosité pour quand même montrer leurs créations en ces temps de crise. Ainsi les oeuvres de la plasticienne Katherine Kennedy, aussi membre de l’équipe de FreshMilk, ainsi que des œuvres d’autres artistes locaux sont en cours d’installation dans la Flower Forest, un jardin de plantes tropicales normalement très fréquenté par les nombreux touristes de saison, absents cette année 2020. Il y a aussi l’exposition de groupe «PAST PRESENT FUTURE» à la galerie Brighton Storeroom située dans un marché fermier, qui fonctionne uniquement le samedi ou sur rendez-vous.

Parallèlement plusieurs institutions créatives de la région  telles FreshMilk en Barbades, Kingston Creative en Jamaique, Le Centre d’Art  en Haïti entre autres, ont crée des programmes innovateurs tels que des salons virtuels hebdomadaires , des résidences  de création a domicile , et aussi des session de formation . C’est ainsi que j’ai bénéficié d’une session  de 3hres sur la Gestion des media sociaux animée par la journaliste et fondatrice de Weekult Music Lab, Charlene Jamet dans le cadre du programme CATAPULT. Une démarche importante et très utile a l’heure  ou l’internet devient un organe de communication, de promotion de plus en plus indispensable pour les créateurs.

Cette semaine j’ai aussi eu le privilège d’être interviewée par Amyra Leon, une talentueuse poétesse, chanteuse, photographe et performeuse afro-latino-newyorkaise.

Jamais 2 sans 3, je dis adieu a l‘atelier de FreshMilk  qui m’a si généreusement accueilli, avec ma troisième création Mètrès Fanm.


IN ENGLISH

Week 4

Already my last week of artistic residency in Barbados!

The artists there are deploying ingenuity in their efforts to show their creations any way they can in these times of crisis. Thus the works of visual artist Katherine Kennedy, also a member of the Fresh Milk team, along with other local artists are being installed in the Flower Forest, a garden of tropical plants normally frequented by the many seasonal tourists, absent this year in 2020. There is also the group show ‘PAST PRESENT FUTURE’ at The Brighton Storeroom gallery located in a farmer’s market, which only operates on Saturdays or by appointment.

At the same time, several creative institutions in the region such as Fresh Milk in Barbados, Kingston Creative in Jamaica, Le Centre d’Art in Haiti among others, have created innovative programs such as weekly virtual fairs, creative residencies at home, and also creative training sessions. This is how I benefited from a 3 hour session on Social Media Management hosted by journalist and founder of Weekult Music Lab, Charlene Jamet as part of the CATAPULT programme. This is an important and very useful step at a time when the Internet is becoming an increasingly essential means of communication and promotion for creators.

This week I also had the privilege of being interviewed by Amyra Leon, a talented Afro-Latino-New York poet, singer, photographer and performer.

Never 2 without 3, I say goodbye to the Fresh Milk studio which so generously welcomed me, with my third creation Mètrès Fanm.


ABOUT LE CENTRE D’ART:

Le Centre d’Art in Port-au-Prince is an institution that works towards promoting artistic creations by Haitian practitioners on the basis of preserved heritage values. Since its creation in 1944, this atypical space with multiple missions has been at the heart of societal and artistic evolutions. As the major protagonist in the reconfiguration of the fine arts realm in Haiti, Le Centre d’Art has been paving the way for several schools and artistic movements.

Despite the destruction of the infrastructure during the earthquake of 2010, Le Centre d’Art managed to save more than 5000 works and 3000 archive files, which are today preserved and valued. Since the reopening in 2014, Le Centre d’Art has once again become an essential part of Haitian culture.

Its mission is to support artists and their creations, and to conserve and disseminate Haitian visual arts. It is a resource space for artists, art students, art lovers, collectors and researchers alike.

Pascale Faublas’ Fresh Milk Residency – Week 3 Blog Post

Fresh Milk shares the third blog post by Haitian resident artist Pascale Faublas, who is joining us as part of an artist exchange programme with Le Centre d’Art, Haiti, to create opportunities for women arts practitioners. Pascale focuses this week on interactions with fellow creatives, cultural practitioners and spiritual women, who have inspired the creation of new pieces during her time in the studio. This programme is supported by UNESCO’s International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFDC) and the Foundation for Knowledge and Liberty (FOKAL). Read more below:


En français

Semaine 3

Partager le  Fresh Milk studio avec Aliyah Hasinah , une écrivaine trentenaire, commissaire d’art contemporain , de parents de la Barbades et de la Jamaique , qui vit et travaille à Londres ; a été l’occasion  pour nous de nombreuses discussions , notamment sur les sujets se rapportant à la condition féminine. Avec elle, j’ai pu donc découvrir le concept de Pop féminisme . Un féminisme  contemporain, subversif, qui campe une femme confiante, assumant son corps et sa sexualité, une femme sujet de son destin.

Ainsi est née Fanm se Poto Mitan #1.

Grace à la mise en contact  par Annalee Davis ,  j’ai pu , au courant de cette troisième semaine de résidence à FreshMilk , rencontrer trois Fanm Poto Mitan , d’age mur, d’origine caribéenne ( St. Vincent et Jamaïque) , qui résident et travaillent en Barbade.  Toutes les trois des êtres spirituels ( Manbo ou initiée, diplômée dans des domaines créatifs et de développement culturels ou social.

  1. Dr. Yanique Hume: Manbo, danseuse chorégraphe , chercheuse en anthropologie culturelle, études et performances avec un focus sur la Caraïbes, l’Amérique latine et la diaspora africaine.
  2. Ireka Jelani: Manbo, médecin traditionnel, entrepreneure et directrice de sa compagnie de vannerie Roots and Grasses, une plasticienne et  étudiante doctorante a l’université des West Indies.
  3. Taitu Heron: écrivaine et Directrice de la faculté  Women and Development  de l’université des West Indies.

Avec elles j’ai pu découvrir  non seulement la Barbade mais aussi  l’existence d’une  Caraïbe anglophone et l’étroite connexion (économique, sociale, culturelle) entre les différentes iles qui la composent. Nous avons pu discuter de la condition des femmes et des filles, discuter des  différences et ressemblances culturelles entre Haïti et cette caraïbe anglophone et de la nécessite de construire des liens pouvant unifier la grande Caraïbes.

Fanm se Kajou est née de ces passionnantes rencontres.


In English

Week 3

Sharing the Fresh Milk studio with Aliyah Hasinah, a 30-something writer and curator of contemporary art living and working in London and whose parents are from Barbados and Jamaica, was the occasion for many discussions; especially on matters relating to the status of women. With her, I was able to discover the concept of Pop Feminism – a contemporary, subversive feminism, which encapsulates a confident woman, assuming her body and her sexuality, a woman subject to her destiny.

Thus was born Fanm se Poto Mitan # 1.

Thanks to the contacts made by Annalee Davis, I was able during this third week of residency at Fresh Milk, to meet three Fanm Poto Mitans, middle aged and of Caribbean origin (St. Vincent and Jamaica), who reside and work in Barbados. All three are spiritual beings (Manbo or initiate, graduate in creative fields and cultural or social development).

1. Dr. Yanique Hume: Manbo, dancer, choreographer, researcher in cultural anthropology, studies and performances with a focus on the Caribbean, Latin America and the African diaspora.
2. Ireka Jelani: Manbo, traditional doctor, entrepreneur and director of her basketry company Roots and Grasses, plastic artist and doctoral student at the University of the West Indies.
3. Taitu Heron: Writer and Director of the Women and Development Faculty of the University of the West Indies.

With them I was able to discover not only Barbados, but also the existence of an English-speaking Caribbean and the close connection (economic, social, cultural) between the different islands that make it up. We were able to discuss the condition of women and girls, discuss the differences and cultural similarities between Haiti and the English-speaking Caribbean, and the need to build links that can unify the greater Caribbean.

Fanm se Kajou was born from these fascinating encounters.


About Le Centre d’Art:

Le Centre d’Art in Port-au-Prince is an institution that works towards promoting artistic creations by Haitian practitioners on the basis of preserved heritage values. Since its creation in 1944, this atypical space with multiple missions has been at the heart of societal and artistic evolutions. As the major protagonist in the reconfiguration of the fine arts realm in Haiti, Le Centre d’Art has been paving the way for several schools and artistic movements.

Despite the destruction of the infrastructure during the earthquake of 2010, Le Centre d’Art managed to save more than 5000 works and 3000 archive files, which are today preserved and valued. Since the reopening in 2014, Le Centre d’Art has once again become an essential part of Haitian culture.

Its mission is to support artists and their creations, and to conserve and disseminate Haitian visual arts. It is a resource space for artists, art students, art lovers, collectors and researchers alike.

Pascale Faublas’ Fresh Milk Residency – Week 2 Blog Post

Fresh Milk shares the second blog post by Haitian resident artist Pascale Faublas, who is joining us as part of an artist exchange programme with Le Centre d’Art, Haiti, to create opportunities for women arts practitioners. Pascale has had a productive second week, meeting a number of Barbadian creatives and having stimulating discussions about the regional art scene, as well as beginning to dive in to creating her own work in the Fresh Milk studio. This programme is supported by UNESCO’s International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFDC) and the Foundation for Knowledge and Liberty (FOKAL). Read more below:


En français

Semaine 2

Fresh Milk Barbados est une ruche effervescente, une plateforme dynamique favorisant les rencontres, échanges  entre les  créatifs de la Barbade et d’ailleurs.  En effet,  ma deuxième semaine de résidence a été riche  en  rencontres, dialogues et discussions sur la réalité, et les problématiques spécifiques aux créateurs de la Caraïbes, leurs inspirations, aspirations, perspectives de création et de diffusion de l’art de la région.  Apres avoir visité l’exposition individuelle  «This is how our garden grows » de l’artiste barbadien Kraig Yearwood, celui ci nous a rendu visite a FreshMilk ou il nous a fait une brève et intéressante présentation de son travail et de son parcours, s’est entretenu avec ma co résidente, la conservatrice Aliyah Hasinah sur la situation de la présence de l’art de la Barbade localement, dans la région et sur la scène internationale, discuter de la nécessité de la décolonisation des Arts de la région caraïbes.

Un cocktail « Meet and Greet » organisé par FreshMilk m’a permis de rencontrer plusieurs milléniaux créatifs de la Barbade et de planifier des visites d’atelier pour la semaine a venir.

Au courant de cette 2eme semaine de résidence, riche de ces échanges, et mise à disposition de son atelier de rêve, j’ai  heureusement entamé ma première création artistique que j’ai hâte de vous présenter.


In English

Week 2

Fresh Milk Barbados is an effervescent hive, a dynamic platform promoting meetings and exchanges between creatives from Barbados and elsewhere. Indeed, my second week of the residency was rich in meetings, dialogues and discussions on our realities, and the specific issues of Caribbean creators, their inspirations, aspirations, perspectives of creation and dissemination of the art of the region. After visiting the solo exhibition ‘This is how our garden grows’ by Barbadian artist Kraig Yearwood, he visited us at Fresh Milk where he gave us a brief and interesting presentation of his work and his career. He spoke with my co-resident, curator Aliyah Hasinah about the status of Barbados’ art presence locally, in the region and on the international stage, discussing the need for the decolonization of the arts in the Caribbean.

A ‘Meet and Greet’ cocktail hosted by Fresh Milk allowed me to meet several creative Barbadian millennials and plan studio visits for the coming week.

During this 2nd week, rich in these exchanges made available in this dream studio, I fortunately started my first artistic creation, which I can’t wait to present to you.


About Le Centre d’Art:

Le Centre d’Art in Port-au-Prince is an institution that works towards promoting artistic creations by Haitian practitioners on the basis of preserved heritage values. Since its creation in 1944, this atypical space with multiple missions has been at the heart of societal and artistic evolutions. As the major protagonist in the reconfiguration of the fine arts realm in Haiti, Le Centre d’Art has been paving the way for several schools and artistic movements.

Despite the destruction of the infrastructure during the earthquake of 2010, Le Centre d’Art managed to save more than 5000 works and 3000 archive files, which are today preserved and valued. Since the reopening in 2014, Le Centre d’Art has once again become an essential part of Haitian culture.

Its mission is to support artists and their creations, and to conserve and disseminate Haitian visual arts. It is a resource space for artists, art students, art lovers, collectors and researchers alike.

Pascale Faublas’ Fresh Milk Residency – Week 1 Blog Post

Fresh Milk shares the first blog post by Haitian resident artist Pascale Faublas, who is joining us as part of an artist exchange programme with Le Centre d’Art, Haiti, to create opportunities for women arts practitioners. In her first week, Pascale introduces us to the experience of coming to Barbados during these challenging times, following travel protocols and transitioning into the start of her residency. This programme is supported by UNESCO’s International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFDC) and the Foundation for Knowledge and Liberty (FOKAL). Read more below:


En français

Semaine 1

A année exceptionnelle, décisions exceptionnelles! En cette année 2020 marquée par la pandémie du Covid 19, ma résidence artistique a Fresh Milk en Barbades a été exceptionnellement coordonnée par Le Centre d’Art en Haïti et Fresh Milk en Barbades avec le support de l’Unesco et de la Fokal dans l’objectif de rapprocher les artistes de la Caraïbe et d’’offrir des opportunités aux femmes artistes en particulier.

Arrivée en Barbades le 1er Novembre, et suivant les mesures  imposées par le gouvernement, les 6 premiers jours de mon séjour seront conditionnés par ce virus, confinée dans une chambre d’hôtel désigné a cet effet , avec interdiction de prendre contact physique avec quiquonque pas avant les résultats négatifs d’un test Covid PCR pris au 2eme jour et un report de température tous les jours 2 fois par jour pendant 14 jours. 

Je serai donc accueillie a distance par Annalee Davis, qui généreusement me pourvoira en  livres provenant de la bibliothèque de Fresh Milk , traitant de la culture, de l’art dans la Caraïbe et la Barbades, me mettra en contact avec des personnes ressources telles que Dr. Tonya Haynes and Taitu Heron pour une mise en contexte de mon projet de résidence : Fanm se poto mitan.

C’est ainsi que,  le 6 Novembre, je suis reçue par Anna Lee Davis et Katherine Kennedy a Fresh Milk sur son site la  Walkers Dairy , une ancienne plantation coloniale aujourd’hui convertie en ferme ou se trouve l’atelier et la résidence d’artistes.


In ENGLISH

Week 1

In an exceptional year, exceptional actions! In this year, 2020, marked by the Covid-19 pandemic, my artistic residency at Fresh Milk in Barbados was exceptionally coordinated by Le Centre d’Art in Haiti and Fresh Milk in Barbados with the support of UNESCO and Fokal with the objective of bringing artists from the Caribbean closer together, and to offer opportunities to women artists in particular.

I arrived in Barbados on November 1, and following the measures imposed by the government, the first 6 days of my stay were conditioned by this virus. I was confined in a hotel room designated for this purpose, with a ban on making physical contact with anyone before the negative results of a Covid PCR test taken on the 2nd day and a temperature report every day twice a day for 14 days.

I was greeted at a distance by Annalee Davis, who generously provided me with books dealing with culture, art in the Caribbean and Barbados, all from the Colleen Lewis Reading Room at Fresh Milk. Fresh Milk put me in contact with Dr. Tonya Haynes (Institute for Gender & Development Studies at the University of the West Indies) and Taitu Heron (Director of the UWI Women and Development Unit, University of the West Indies) for me to contextualize my residency project: Fanm se poto mitan.

On November 6, I was received by Annalee Davis and Katherine Kennedy at Fresh Milk on their site at Walkers Dairy, a former colonial plantation now converted into a farm, which hosts workshops and artist residencies.


About Le Centre d’Art:

Le Centre d’Art in Port-au-Prince is an institution that works towards promoting artistic creations by Haitian practitioners on the basis of preserved heritage values. Since its creation in 1944, this atypical space with multiple missions has been at the heart of societal and artistic evolutions. As the major protagonist in the reconfiguration of the fine arts realm in Haiti, Le Centre d’Art has been paving the way for several schools and artistic movements.

Despite the destruction of the infrastructure during the earthquake of 2010, Le Centre d’Art managed to save more than 5000 works and 3000 archive files, which are today preserved and valued. Since the reopening in 2014, Le Centre d’Art has once again become an essential part of Haitian culture.

Its mission is to support artists and their creations, and to conserve and disseminate Haitian visual arts. It is a resource space for artists, art students, art lovers, collectors and researchers alike.